I don't think it has anything to do with the number of characters, at least on the char count of the entire search term. I think it has more to do with stemming.
i get the same results that you do after adding a blog post with a title of Aerospace Division. However if I add a blog post with a title of Mathematics Division I get the same results (but at different char counts than the shorter Aerospace Division).
title:mathematics divis* = get Mathematics Division (17 chars works)
title:mathematics divisi* = no results
In fact if I only search for the term Division I still get the same results:
title:d* ... or anything up to ... title:divis* will show me at least those 2 blog posts
title:divisi* = no results
And I don't think it has anything to do with the number of characters of the single term either. Division seems to stop working after 6 characters. But performing the same test with Aerospace works all the way to the last letter:
title:a* ... or anything up to ... title:aerospac* will return at least the Aerospace Division blog post.
The same thing happens to Mathematics as does to Division.
title:m* ... and everything up to ... title:mathemat* will return at least the Mathematics Division blog post
title:mathemati* = no results